Can surgery be used to treat obesity?
To fight obesity, you need treatments that are just right for you. For example, there are ways to make the stomach less able to take in food and cause malabsorption.
Overweight teens. Obese subjects are increasing, and behavioral, dietary, and pharmacological treatments don't always help. Bariatric surgery is also increasing: from 7,645 operations in 2012 to over 25,000 in 2022 (+300%). Knowing the risks of obesity and tailoring answers to each person is crucial.
The treatment is tailor-made
Each person must be offered the most appropriate surgical strategy, when surgery is the treatment of choice for obesity. Specialists can now focus on different techniques, which can be traced back to two different principles: on one hand, they aim to reduce the stomach's ability to receive food, shrinking the bowels, and on the other, to create malabsorption or induce a change in how much the patient eats.
The gastric band, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and gastric bypass are common interventions. Without forgetting that there are other options, such as the classic "balloon" that is inflated in the stomach to reduce its capacity.
Obese people have a distended stomach and must "eat" to fill it. So a smaller stomach reduces food intake. Endoscopy doctor "inflates" balloon. The balloon is later removed. The bandage changes the stomach into an hourglass with a smaller top to reduce food intake.
A silicone ring is passed around the stomach, tightened, and removed. The treatment is performed laparoscopically, without the classic surgical incisions, as with Sleeve Gastrectomy (vertical gastrectomy), which "transforms" the stomach structure from "bag" to "tube" The surgeon "removes" a portion of the stomach, turning the bowel into a canal where food cannot be deposited. Reduced appetite.
Obesity surgery can limit nutrient absorption and promote weight loss in "different ways." Sometimes the surgeon creates a "pochette" inside the stomach and connects it to the small intestine. In this way, a faster feeling of fullness is achieved, since food enters a smaller cavity of the original organ and the stomach and duodenum are "eliminated" from the food passage, as well as the first part of the smaller portion.
Soon after eating little, one feels full due to the shrunken stomach and a hormonal mechanism. Digested food in the intestine favors the production of enterohormones, which reduce appetite by signaling satiety to the hypothalamus. Much more complex and reserved for extremely selected cases is "biliopancreatic diversion," which modifies the digestive system.
A day for knowledge
Unfortunately, little is known about the obesity problem, the need to approach it multidisciplinary, the potential of surgical treatment, and its effects, risks, and benefits.
“Obesità, Quando Serve La Chirurgia E Le Tecniche Disponibili.” Obesità, Quando Serve La Chirurgia E Le Tecniche Disponibili, 24 Oct. 2022, dilei.it/salute/obesita-ecco-quando-serve-il-bisturi-e-come-funzionano-gli-interventi-chirurgici/1196629.