Wednesday, July 19, 2023

Tetanus: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

 Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are found in soil, dust, and manure and can enter the body through a wound

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 Tetanus can cause muscle contractions, particularly of the jaw and neck muscles, and is commonly known as lockjaw
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Causes

Tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust, and manure. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body through a wound
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 Tetanus is not spread from person to person
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Symptoms

The first sign of tetanus is most commonly spasms of the muscles of the jaw, or “lockjaw.” Other symptoms may include painful muscle stiffness all over the body, trouble swallowing, seizures, headache, fever and sweating, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate
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Treatment

There is no cure for tetanus. Treatment consists of wound care, medications to ease symptoms, and supportive care, usually in an intensive care unit
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 Immediate treatment with medicine called human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) is required, along with aggressive wound care, drugs to control muscle spasms, and antibiotics
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Vaccination

Vaccination is the best way to protect against tetanus. The United States sees an average of about 30 reported cases of tetanus each year, nearly all of which are among people who did not get all the recommended tetanus vaccinations
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 Tetanus vaccines are available in four kinds, all of which also provide protection against other diseases
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 Babies, children, preteens, teens, and adults of all ages need doses of the tetanus vaccine at different times throughout their lives
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Remember to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect you have tetanus.

## Tetanus: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are found in soil, dust, and manure and can enter the body through a wound[3]. Tetanus can cause muscle contractions, particularly of the jaw and neck muscles, and is commonly known as lockjaw[11]. 

### Causes
Tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust, and manure. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body through a wound[3]. Tetanus is not spread from person to person[3].

### Symptoms
The first sign of tetanus is most commonly spasms of the muscles of the jaw, or “lockjaw.” Other symptoms may include painful muscle stiffness all over the body, trouble swallowing, seizures, headache, fever and sweating, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate[4]. 

### Treatment
There is no cure for tetanus. Treatment consists of wound care, medications to ease symptoms, and supportive care, usually in an intensive care unit[2]. Immediate treatment with medicine called human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) is required, along with aggressive wound care, drugs to control muscle spasms, and antibiotics[6]. 

### Vaccination
Vaccination is the best way to protect against tetanus. The United States sees an average of about 30 reported cases of tetanus each year, nearly all of which are among people who did not get all the recommended tetanus vaccinations[5]. Tetanus vaccines are available in four kinds, all of which also provide protection against other diseases[9]. Babies, children, preteens, teens, and adults of all ages need doses of the tetanus vaccine at different times throughout their lives[1]. 

Remember to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect you have tetanus.

Citations:
[1] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/24283-tetanus-shot
[2] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tetanus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351631
[3] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/causes-transmission.html
[4] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/symptoms-complications.html
[5] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/vaccination.html
[6] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/diagnosis-treatment.html
[7] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/index.html
[8] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/23582-tetanus-lockjaw
[9] https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/tetanus/index.html
[10] https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/clinicians.html
[11] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tetanus/symptoms-causes/syc-20351625
[12] https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/do-adults-really-need-tetanus-booster-shots-2020051219786
[13] https://www.uptodate.com/contents/tetanus
[14] https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/tetanus
[15] https://www.nationalacademies.org/based-on-science/what-is-the-purpose-of-a-tetanus-shot
[16] https://www.webmd.com/children/vaccines/understanding-tetanus-treatment
[17] https://www.everydayhealth.com/tetanus/guide/
[18] https://www.healthline.com/health/how-long-does-a-tetanus-shot-last
[19] https://www.pennmedicine.org/for-patients-and-visitors/patient-information/conditions-treated-a-to-z/tetanus
[20] https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/accidents-first-aid-and-treatments/do-i-need-a-tetanus-jab-vaccine-after-an-accident-or-injury/
[21] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459217/
[22] https://www.hhs.gov/immunization/diseases/tetanus/index.html
[23] https://www.cedars-sinai.org/health-library/diseases-and-conditions/t/tetanus.html
[24] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tetanus/expert-answers/tetanus-shots/faq-20058209
[25] https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/tetanus

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