Saturday, July 15, 2023

What is a gastric or duodenal ulcer?

 Gastric and duodenal ulcers are sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) 

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 These ulcers can cause a variety of symptoms and complications.

Symptoms

The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is a burning or gnawing pain in the center of the abdomen
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 The pain may be dull or burning and may come and go over time. For some people, the pain may occur when the stomach is empty or at night, and it may go away for a short time after they eat. For other people, eating may make the pain worse
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 Other symptoms include feeling full too soon while eating a meal, feeling uncomfortably full after eating a meal, nausea and vomiting, bloating, and belching
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Diagnosis

To diagnose a peptic ulcer, your doctor may ask about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and order tests such as an upper GI endoscopy
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 During an upper GI endoscopy, a doctor uses an endoscope—a flexible tube with a camera—to see the lining of your upper GI tract, including your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
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Complications

Complications of stomach ulcers are relatively uncommon, but they can be very serious if they happen
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 The most common complication of stomach ulcers is internal bleeding, which can happen when an ulcer develops at the site of a blood vessel
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 A rarer complication of stomach ulcers is the lining of the stomach splitting open, known as perforation. This can be very serious because it enables the bacteria that live in your stomach to escape and infect the lining of your abdomen (peritoneum). This is known as peritonitis
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 In some cases, an inflamed or scarred stomach ulcer can stop food from going through the digestive tract, causing a blockage
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Treatment

Treatment for a gastric or duodenal ulcer depends on the cause. If the ulcer is caused by an H. pylori infection, antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria
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 Medications that reduce stomach acid, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 blockers, may also be prescribed to help the ulcer heal
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 In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the ulcer
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Prevention

To prevent the development of a gastric or duodenal ulcer, avoid smoking, limit alcohol consumption, and avoid taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen
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 If you have an H. pylori infection, it's important to get treated to prevent the development of an ulcer
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 Additionally, managing stress and eating a healthy diet may help prevent the development of ulcers
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If you suspect you have a gastric or duodenal ulcer, it's important to see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Citations:
[1] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/stomach-ulcer/complications/
[2] https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/peptic-ulcers-stomach-ulcers/symptoms-causes
[3] https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/peptic-ulcers-stomach-ulcers/diagnosis
[4] https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/stomach-and-duodenal-ulcers-peptic-ulcers
[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1121510/
[6] https://www.verywellhealth.com/symptoms-of-peptic-ulcer-complications-1742819
[7] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/stomach-ulcer/
[8] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peptic-ulcer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354229
[9] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peptic-ulcer/symptoms-causes/syc-20354223
[10] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/22314-stomach-peptic-ulcer
[11] https://www2.hse.ie/conditions/stomach-ulcer/complications/
[12] https://www.cedars-sinai.org/health-library/diseases-and-conditions/u/ulcers.html
[13] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/stomach-ulcer/diagnosis/
[14] https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/duodenal-ulcer
[15] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/10350-peptic-ulcer-disease
[16] https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-complications-of-peptic-ulcer-disease
[17] https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/issues/2015/0215/p236.html
[18] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557390/
[19] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22095016/
[20] https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/stomach-ulcer
[21] https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/stomach-liver-and-gastrointestinal-tract/stomach-ulcer
[22] https://www.pennmedicine.org/for-patients-and-visitors/patient-information/conditions-treated-a-to-z/peptic-ulcer-disease
[23] https://www.healthline.com/health/gastric-and-duodenal-ulcers
[24] https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/diseases-conditions/peptic-ulcer

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