Saturday, July 15, 2023

how does smoking affect the risk of developing a gastric or duodenal ulcer?

 Smoking is a risk factor for developing gastric or duodenal ulcers. Here are some ways smoking affects the risk of developing these ulcers:

  • Smoking increases the production of stomach acid, which can irritate the lining of the stomach and duodenum, leading to the formation of ulcers
    1
    4
    .
  • Smoking increases the risk of bile salt reflux, which can raise the risk of gastric ulcer in smokers
    1
    .
  • Smoking reduces the level of circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and decreases the secretion of EGF from the salivary gland, which are necessary for gastric mucosal cell renewal
    1
    .
  • Smoking reduces prostaglandin generation in the gastric mucosa of smokers, thereby making the mucosa susceptible to ulceration
    1
    .
  • Smokers are more likely to develop peptic ulcers
    2
    .
     Ulcers are painful sores in the lining of the stomach or the beginning of the small intestine.
  • Current smoking increases the risk for ulcer perforation 10-fold in the age group 15–74 years
    5
    .
In summary, smoking can harm the digestive system in a number of ways, including increasing the risk of developing gastric or duodenal ulcers. If you smoke and are concerned about your risk of developing ulcers, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about strategies to quit smoking.

Citations:
[1] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14619984/
[2] https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/smoking-and-the-digestive-system
[3] https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1786
[4] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3053883/
[5] https://gut.bmj.com/content/41/2/177
[6] https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/613622

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