The history of Jewish communities in Croatia and the attitude towards them has been complex and often tragic, especially in the context of World War II and its aftermath. The Jewish community in Croatia dates back to at least the 3rd century, with a significant presence established by the 10th and 15th centuries. On the eve of the Second World War, the Jewish population in Croatia was estimated to be around 25,000. However, during the Holocaust, a large portion of this population was murdered by the Ustaše, a fascist organization that collaborated with the Nazis. This regime, in the Nazi puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia, implemented severe anti-Semitic laws and propaganda, and established concentration camps where Jews and other minorities were persecuted and killed [[❞]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Croatia) [[❞]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia).
After the war, many survivors chose to settle in Israel, with only an estimated 2,500 Jews remaining in Croatia. The Jewish community in Croatia today is small, with around 2,000 members. Despite the community's efforts to promote Jewish culture and identity, such as through the Zagreb Jewish Film Festival, Croatia's Jews continue to face challenges. In recent years, there have been instances of Holocaust denial and the resurgence of neo-fascist sentiments. This has led to boycotts by the Jewish community of official Holocaust Remembrance Day events in protest against the government's perceived failure to adequately address modern-day Nazism and historical revisionism. For example, there was controversy over a memorial plaque that included a phrase used by the Ustaša, and ongoing debates about the extent of Croatian collaboration with the Nazis during World War II [[❞]](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/why-croatian-jews-boycotted-years-holocaust-remembrance-day-180961958/) [[❞]](https://www.timesofisrael.com/croatia-jews-boycott-wwii-memorial-say-government-tolerates-pro-nazi-sentiments/).
These events indicate that while Croatia has made some progress in recognizing and commemorating the atrocities committed against Jews during the Holocaust, there is still a struggle with historical revisionism and denial. The small but resilient Jewish community in Croatia continues to confront these challenges while trying to preserve their cultural and religious heritage.