Diabetes treatment is based on keeping the blood sugar level in check. By measuring often, you can avoid values that are too high or too low and prevent diseases from happening in the first place.
The amount of glucose in the blood is called blood sugar. Glucose is made up of one small molecule of sugar. Glucose gives energy to the cells in the body. The intestinal wall is a very quick way for glucose from food to get into the blood. So that it can get from the blood into the cells, it needs the hormone insulin. Without insulin, only nerve cells and red blood cells can absorb glucose.
When a person is healthy, their body makes insulin when it needs it, and their blood sugar levels are normal. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or none at all. An autoimmune disease is to blame. Those who have it have to give themselves insulin shots on a regular basis to control their blood sugar and avoid sudden metabolic problems and long-term damage. People with diabetes figure out how much insulin they need on their own. They look at the person's current blood sugar level and other things, like how many carbs they eat or how much exercise lowers blood sugar.
Type 2 diabetes is not the same as type 1 diabetes. Insulin resistance means that the body's cells don't respond as well to insulin, so sugar doesn't get into the cells almost enough and builds up in the blood. The pancreas starts by making more and more insulin. This is done to break through this resistance. But eventually, the organ wears out, insulin levels drop, and blood sugar levels rise, until they reach a level that meets the criteria for type 2 diabetes.
This is how elevated blood sugar levels are expressed.
Most people get type 1 diabetes when they are young or in their teens. In just a few weeks, it will grow very quickly. It is usually easy to spot because of its common signs, such as a strong thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, tiredness, and exhaustion.
When it comes to type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, it can take a long time to figure out what's wrong. Because this type of diabetes usually has no symptoms or only vague ones, even doctors don't always think of it right away. Tiredness and increased thirst are also signs, as are a higher risk of getting infections, a longer time for wounds to heal, or dry, itchy skin.
How high can the blood sugar be?
The goal of treating diabetes is to get the blood sugar level closer to what it would be in a healthy person. Blood sugar levels in a healthy adult are usually below 100 mg/dl or 5.6 mmol/l when they haven't eaten for 8 to 10 hours. Usually, the value is below 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) two hours after a meal.
Diabetes is present when the blood glucose level is at least 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) at any time (eg, after a meal). A fasting blood sugar level between 100 and 125 mg/dl (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l) is an early sign of type 2 diabetes (prediabetes). People with fasting values in this range can keep from getting diabetes if they figure out what makes them more likely to get it and do something about it.
Blood glucose levels: an overview
Blood sugar levels in healthy people:
- fasting: below 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l)
- any time after a meal: less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L)
- HbA1c: between 4.5 and 5.7%
Blood sugar levels in people with diabetes:
- Fasting: 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or greater
- anytime after a meal: over 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)
- HbA1c: higher than 6.5%
Blood sugar levels in prediabetes:
- fasting: between 100 and 125 mg/dl (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l)
- any time after a meal: 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11 mmol/L)
- HbA1c: between 5.7 and 6.5%
People with diabetes are interested in both their blood sugar levels before and after they eat. Because they show how well the diabetes is controlled and if the treatment needs to be changed. For example, if the fasting values are good in the morning but the blood sugar rises so much after eating that it may be necessary to take a fast-acting insulin squirt with meals,.
I request that my blog readers to check their blood sugar regularly. I ignored the doctor's advice despite the history of diabetes in the family. This resulted in severe heart in may 2019. My blood sugar was 384 when I had a heart attack.