Friday, July 14, 2023

how does radiation therapy affect bone cells and DNA?

 Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer that uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells. However, it can also affect normal cells, including bone cells and DNA.

Radiation can directly affect DNA structure by inducing DNA breaks, particularly double-strand breaks (DSBs). It can also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that oxidize proteins and lipids and induce several damages to DNA, such as the generation of abasic sites and single-strand breaks (SSBs) 
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 These damages can lead to cell death or prevent the DNA from replicating correctly
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Radiation can also lead to bone loss and increase the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. High doses of radiation can cause bone destruction with increased bone resorption by osteoclasts and reduced bone formation by osteoblasts
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 Molecular signals from chemotherapy-induced senescent cells can disrupt a process known as bone remodeling, leading to bone loss in mice receiving chemotherapy
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It's important to note that not everyone who receives radiation therapy will experience bone loss or DNA damage. The severity of the effects depends on the dose and duration of radiation therapy, as well as individual factors such as age and overall health
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If you're concerned about the effects of radiation therapy on your bone cells and DNA, it's always best to talk to your doctor. They can provide more information about your individual risk and recommend any necessary screening or monitoring.

References

  1. National Cancer Institute. A Strategy for Preserving Bone During Chemotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2020/bone-loss-chemotherapy-senescence
  2. PubMed. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763322/
  3. PMC. The Influence of Radiation on Bone and Bone Cells—Differential Effects on Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504528/
  4. PubMed. Biological consequences of radiation-induced DNA damage: relevance to radiotherapy. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23849504/
  5. Frontiers in Endocrinology. Therapeutic Irradiation: Consequences for Bone and Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00587/full
  6. Let's Talk Science. Radiation Effects on Cells & DNA. Retrieved from https://letstalkscience.ca/educational-resources/backgrounders/radiation-effects-on-cells-dna
  7. Cancer.org. Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/types/bone-cancer/treating/radiation.html
  8. Frontiers in Oncology. Altering DNA Repair to Improve Radiation Therapy: Specific and Multiple Pathway Targeting. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2019.01009/full
  9. Mayo Clinic Research. Tissue Repair and Regeneration After Radiotherapy-Related Bone Damage. Retrieved from https://www.mayo.edu/research/labs/bone-injury-repair/research/tissue-repair-regeneration-after-radiotherapy-related-bone-damage
  10. ScienceDirect. Biological Consequences of Radiation-induced DNA Damage: Relevance to Radiotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0936655513002471
  11. MD Anderson Cancer Center. 5 questions about bone health and cancer. Retrieved from https://www.mdanderson.org/cancerwise/5-questions-about-bone-health-and-cancer.h00-159379578.html
  12. Nature. DNA damage response signaling pathways and targets for radiotherapy sensitization in cancer. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-020-0150-x
  13. Translational Cancer Research. Translational research in radiation-induced DNA damage signaling and repair. Retrieved from https://tcr.amegroups.com/article/view/14113/11802
  14. UCF News. UCF Researchers Design Treatment to Protect Bones During Cancer Therapy. Retrieved from https://www.ucf.edu/news/ucf-researchers-design-treatment-to-protect-bones-during-cancer-therapy/
  15. Cancer Research UK. A study looking at changes to DNA in people having radiotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/find-a-clinical-trial/a-study-looking-changes-dna-people-having-radiotherapy

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