Friday, July 14, 2023

what is immune thrombocytopenia?

 Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder that can happen in children and adults. It is caused by an immune system error that may be triggered by viral infections, although often no specific cause is found

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 In ITP, your blood doesn’t clot properly because you have a smaller amount of platelets (thrombocytes) than normal
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 Platelets are the cells in your blood that help it clot, and when you have ITP, your immune system destroys these cells
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Symptoms

ITP may not cause any signs or symptoms, but it can cause bleeding inside the body (internal bleeding) or underneath or from the skin (external bleeding) 
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 Signs of bleeding may include easy or excessive bruising, superficial bleeding into the skin that looks like a rash, pinpoint red spots on the skin called petechiae, a collection of clotted or partially clotted blood under the skin that looks or feels like a lump, nosebleeds or bleeding from the gums, and blood in the urine or stool
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Diagnosis

To diagnose ITP, your doctor will try to exclude other possible causes of bleeding and a low platelet count, such as an underlying illness or medications you or your child may be taking
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 Blood tests can check the levels of platelets, and in rare cases, adults might need a bone marrow exam to rule out other problems
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 There is no one specific test to prove a patient has ITP, and it is diagnosed by excluding other causes of a low platelet count
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Treatment

People with mild ITP may need nothing more than regular monitoring and platelet checks, and children usually improve without treatment
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 Most adults with ITP will eventually need treatment, as the condition often becomes severe or long term (chronic) 
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 Treatment may include medications to boost your platelet count or surgery to remove your spleen (splenectomy) 
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 Corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and anti-RhD immunoglobulin are the classical initial treatments for newly diagnosed ITP in adults
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 Thrombopoietin receptor analogs (TPO-RA; TPO-mimetics) are also used in chronic ITP
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 Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of your treatment options
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If you are experiencing any symptoms of ITP, it is important to seek medical attention.

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