Coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity are two distinct conditions that can cause similar symptoms. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the digestive tract after a person consumes gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and other foods and beverages. On the other hand, non-coeliac wheat sensitivity, also known as non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), is a syndrome of symptomatic response to gluten ingestion in patients without evidence of celiac disease when looking in the blood or at tissue under a microscope.
The symptoms of coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity can be similar, including abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, headaches, and fatigue. However, people with coeliac disease may also experience skin problems, digestive issues, and mood changes. Additionally, people with coeliac disease have intestinal damage when they eat gluten, while people with non-coeliac wheat sensitivity do not have the intestinal damage or antibodies found in those with coeliac disease.
Diagnosis of coeliac disease involves a small intestinal biopsy, while diagnosis of non-coeliac wheat sensitivity requires excluding coeliac disease by serological tests. Treatment of coeliac disease is a strict gluten-free diet for life, while treatment of non-coeliac wheat sensitivity is based on a gluten-free diet, although it is unknown if long-term, strict avoidance of all gluten-related products is necessary.
In summary, coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity are two distinct conditions that can cause similar symptoms. While coeliac disease involves intestinal damage and is an autoimmune disorder, non-coeliac wheat sensitivity does not involve intestinal damage and is a syndrome of symptomatic response to gluten ingestion in patients without evidence of celiac disease. If you suspect you have either condition, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.