Monday, July 31, 2023

What is tuberculosis?

 Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can affect any part of the body, but most commonly affects the lungs

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 TB can be fatal if left untreated
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 Here are the answers to your questions:What are the causes and risk factors of tuberculosis?
TB is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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 It spreads from person to person through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings
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 Anyone can get TB, but some people are at higher risk, including those with weakened immune systems, such as people living with HIV, those with diabetes, and people who smoke
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What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?
The symptoms of TB depend on where in the body the bacteria are growing
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 TB usually affects the lungs, and symptoms can include a bad cough that lasts for more than three weeks, pain in the chest, coughing up blood or sputum, fatigue, weight loss, chills, fever, and night sweats
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 TB can also affect other parts of the body, and symptoms can include fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue
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How is tuberculosis diagnosed?
TB can be diagnosed through a physical exam, a skin test, a blood test, a chest X-ray, and a sputum test
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 During a physical exam, your doctor will check your lymph nodes for swelling and use a stethoscope to listen to the sounds your lungs make when you breathe
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 The most commonly used diagnostic tool for TB is a skin test, though blood tests are becoming more commonplace
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 A small amount of a substance called tuberculin is injected just below the skin on the inside of your forearm
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 Imaging tests such as a chest X-ray or a CT scan may be ordered if you've had a positive skin test
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 Sputum tests are also used to diagnose TB
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How is tuberculosis treated?
TB can be treated with antibiotics, and the length of treatment depends on the regimen
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 Treatment can take 4, 6, or 9 months depending on the regimen
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 The most common treatment for active TB is a combination of four drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and either ethambutol or streptomycin
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 For latent TB infection, the most common preventive therapy is a daily dose of the antibiotic isoniazid taken as a single daily pill for six to nine months
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 It is important to take the medication exactly as prescribed and to finish the entire course of treatment
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 Directly observed therapy (DOT) can help people with TB complete treatment.

Citation:
[1] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/tbdisease.htm
[2] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/11301-tuberculosis
[3] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/risk.htm
[4] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351256
[5] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351250
[6] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/default.htm
[7] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/signsandsymptoms.htm
[8] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/features/riskfactors/RF_Feature.html
[9] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/testing/default.htm
[10] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm
[11] https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/tuberculosis/treating-and-managing
[12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583136/
[13] https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/diagnosis.htm
[14] https://medlineplus.gov/tuberculosis.html
[15] https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-treatment
[16] https://www.everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/guide/risk-factors-causes-prevention/
[17] https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/tuberculosis/symptoms-diagnosis
[18] https://www.webmd.com/lung/understanding-tuberculosis-basics
[19] https://www.verywellhealth.com/causes-and-risk-factors-of-tuberculosis-4160458
[20] https://www.everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/guide/testing/
[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis
[22] http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/tb/cdctbfacts/riskfactors.htm
[23] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tuberculosis-tb/
[24] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis
[25] https://www.nationaljewish.org/conditions/tuberculosis-tb/risk-factors
[26] https://www.who.int/health-topics/tuberculosis

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